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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
15

أقدم لكم أعزائي التلاميذ:

الميتافيزيقا والمنهج عند ديكارت

أولا الميتافيزيقا:

لقد تصور ديكارت بأن الميتافيزيقا علم دقيق يمكن إثبات قضاياه بيقين رياضي.

ونشير هنا إلى إشكالية التمييز بين النفس والبدن؛ فالنفس هي الجوهر الذي يحل فيه الفكر مباشرة، أما الجسم فهو الجوهر المتحيز الذي يتخذ شكلا ووضعا.

وقد قدم ديكارت ثلاثة حجج لإثبات التمييز بين النفس والبدن:

1- النفس موجودة حتى مع افتراض أن البدن غير موجود، وبالتالي فهي شيء متميز عنه ولا يستلزم وجودها مكانا ولا تتوقف على أية مادة.

2- البدن مثل كل الأجسام قابل للقسمة، ولكن النفس واحدة لا تتجزأ.

3- وجود معقولات خالصة لا تحتاج النفس في إدراكها إلى الجسم. هذه المعقولات تدرك بالنور الفطري -الحدس-، مثل: الكل أكبر من الجزء أو المساويان لثالث متساويان، وبطبيعة الحال يبقى الكوجيطو : أنا أفكر، أنا موجود هو أرقى نموذج للفكرة البديهية التي تدرك إدراكا حدسيا مباشرا، ولا تحتاج إلى أية استدلالات عقلية.

هكذا فقد جعل ديكارت البداهة هي أساس الحقيقة؛ إذ كل ما أتصوره بوضوح وتميز فهو حقيقة. كما قال ديكارت بفكرة خلود النفس.

كما نشير في فلسفة ديكارت إلى قضية ميتافيزيقية أساسية، هي مسألة إثبات وجود الله. وقد قدم ديكارت ثلاثة حجج رئيسية على إثبات وجود الله:

1- فكرة الكائن اللامتناهي التي أحملها في ذهني لا يمكن أن تكون مستمدة مني ما دمت كائنا ناقصا ومتناهيا، فإذن لا بد أن تكون قد ألقيت إلي بواسطة كائن كامل هو الله.

2- وجودي ككائن ناقص يترتب عنه وجود كائن كامل هو علة وجودي، وهو الله؛ إذ لو كنت علة وجود نفسي لمنحتها كل الكمالات التي تنقصها.

3- الله كائن مطلق الكمال، أي حائز على كل الكمالات، وبما أن الوجود كمال من تلك الكمالات، فإذن الله موجود.

ثانيا المنهج:

يرى ديكارت أنه لبلوغ المعرفة الصحيحة ليس هناك غير طريقين هما: الحدس والاستدلال. فالحدس هو إدراك مباشر، واضح ومتميز لأشياء بسيطة وأولية، كإدراك الأنا أنه مفكر وانه موجود، أو أن المثلث هو شكل ذو ثلاثة أضلاع، أو أن الكل أكبر من الجزء… أما الاستدلال فهو العملية التي يستنبط بها شيء من شيء آخر.

وقد وضع ديكارت أربعة قواعد لحسن استخدام العقل، يمكن تقديمها باختصار كما يلي:

1- قاعدة اليقين أو الشك: وتعني أنه لا يجب أن أقبل شيئا على انه حق، ما لم أعرف يقينا أنه كذلك. وألا أدخل في أحكامي إلا ما يتمثل أمام عقلي في جلاء وتميز، بحيث لا يكون لدي أي مجال لوضعه موضع شك.

2- قاعدة التحليل: وتعني أنه يجب تقسيم المعضلة إلى أجزاء بسيطة لحلها على خير وجه.

3- قاعدة التركيب: وتعني أن أفكر بشكل منظم، بحيث أبدأ بأبسط الأمور وأسهلها معرفة ثم أتدرج قليلا حتى أصل إلى معرفة أكثر تركيبا.

4- قاعدة الإحصاء أو المراجعة: وتعني أنه يجب بعد الانتهاء من حل المسألة، أن أقوم بمراجعات وإحصاءات للنتائج حتى أتأكد أنني لم أغفل أي شيء.

يمكن أن نقول بعد هذا، أن الفلسفة عند ديكارت هي دراسة الحكمة؛ والحكمة لا تعني التبصر في الأمور فحسب، بل هي معرفة نظرية كاملة لجميع ما يستطيع الإنسان أن يعرفه، وهي تتم عن طريق العلل والمبادئ الأولى التي يستنبط منها كل ما يستطاع معرفته.

فوجود الفكر هو المبدأ الأول، ومنه تستنبط المبادئ التالية:

- وجود الله كخالق للعالم.

- اعتبار الله الضامن لكل حقيقة والمصدر الأول لها.

- اعتبار البداهة أساس اليقين؛ إذ كل ما نتصوره تصورا واضحا ومتميزا فهو حقيقي.

- اعتبار الامتداد هو الخاصية المميزة للأجسام.

دمتم محبين للحكمة وعشاقا للحقيقة.

أضف تعليق.

يجب أن تكون مسجل لإضافة تعليق.