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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
أقدم لك عزيزي التلميذ: وجود الغير عند ديكارت

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
الحجاج والبرهان

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Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

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سبتمبر

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
13

من أجل التعرف على نوع الحجة ووظيفتها في النص الفلسفي

سأقدم لكم تمرينا يبين كيف ندرب التلاميذ على استخراج نوع الحجج المتضمنة في نص فلسفي، مع إبراز الوظيفة الحجاجية التي تقوم بها تلك الحجج داخل النص.

• التمرين: التعرف على أنواع و مجالات ووظائف الحجج المستعملة في النص الفلسفي.

أبرز نوع الحجج المستخدمة في النصوص التالية، و حدد مجالاتها ووظائفها:

أ ـ “لا يوجد عبث أكبر من الاعتقاد بأن كل ما هو منظم بواسطة المؤسسات أو قوانين الشعوب عادل.

ماذا! حتى قوانين الطغاة؟ فلو أراد “الثلاثون” فرض قوانين على الأثينيين و لو قبل الآثنيون كلهم تلك القوانين التي أملاها عليهم الطغاة، فهل يجب اعتبارها (تلك القوانين) عادلة؟”.

شيشرون: الطبيعة كأساس محرك للحق و القوانين، عن الكتاب المدرسي للسنة الثالثة الثانوية الأدبية، الطبعة الأولى1996 ، ص 185.

ب ـ ” ويمكن القول، بصورة عامة، إن الفن بتطلعه إلى منافسة الطبيعة بمحاكاتها، سيبقى أبد الدهر دون مستوى الطبيعة، و سيكون أشبه بدودة تجهد و تكد لتضاهي فيلا”.

هيجل:المدخل إلى علم الجمال، عن الكتاب المدرسي، السنة الثالثة الثانوية الأدبية،الطبعة،ص 70.

ج ـ “و ليس من الثابت أيضا أن تكون قابلية الاجتماع مند الأصل،غريزة فطرية في النوع الإنساني. فالأمر الأكثر طبيعة هو اعتبارها منتوجا للحياة الاجتماعية نشأ بالتدريج فينا : ذلك أن الواقعة الملاحظة هو أن الحيوانات تكون اجتماعية أو لا تكون، تبعا لأوضاع سكناها التي ترغمها على العيش الجماعي أو تبعدها عنه”.

Durkheim (E) : Les règles de la méthode Sociologique,P.U.F , 1977.

عن الكتاب المدرسي ، السنة الثالثة الثانوية الأدبية ،الطبعة،ص 59.

د ـ “إنني أأكد أن للأفراد حقوقا و أن هذه الحقوق مستقلة عن السلطة الاجتماعية التي لا يمكن أن تمسها دون تطاول (أو طغيان)، إن مثل السلطة كمثل الضريبة حيث إن كل فرد يقبل التضحية بجزء من ثروته لسد النفقات العمومية و التي يكون هدفها ضمان تمتعه بما يتبقى له(من الثروة) بسلام، و إذا ما طالبت الدولة كل واحد بأن يدفع لها كل ثروته فستكون الضمانة التي توفرها له مجرد و هم”.

Benjamin Constant (1767-1830) Des droits individuels.

عن الكتاب المدرسي: السنة الثالثة الثانوية الأدبية الطبعة 1996، ص 187.

هـ ـ “و إذا ما ظهر لنا إضافة إلى ذلك أن بوسعنا أن نؤسس على فرضية اللاشعور ممارسة يحالفها النجاح، ونؤثر بواسطتها، وفقا لهدف معين، في مجرى العمليات الواعية، فإننا سوف نكتسب، بهذا النجاح حجة لا تنازع على وجود ما افترضناه”.

Freud : Métapsychologie.

عن الكتاب المدرسي، السنة الثالثة الثانوية الأدبية ، الطبعة، ص 59.

و ـ ” لنفترض أن العقل صفحة بيضاء خالية من جميع الصفات و دون أية أفكار، فكيف تملأ؟ من أين يحصل العقل على جميع مواد التفكير و المعرفة ؟ كل هذا أجيب عنه بكلمة واحدة : من التجربة”.

Locke : Essai concernant l’entendement humain,in les grands textes de la philosophie, G.Pascal,ED.Bordas,1968,France.pp (110-111).

• أجوبة مقترحة:

سأقدم لكم فيما يلي نوع الحجج المتضمنة في كل نص مع ذكر مجالها ووظيفتها:

* النص “أ”:

- نوع الحجة: المثال

- مجالها: الواقع

- وظيفتها: الاعتراض و النقد؛ نقد الأطروحة التي تجعل أساس العدالة و الحق هو المؤسسات و القوانين الوضعية السائدة في المجتمع.

* النص “ب”:

- نوع الحجة: المماثلة

- مجالها: الواقع الحسي المتخيل

- وظيفتها: الاعتراض على فكرة المحاكاة في الفن من منطلق أن الفنان المحاكي لا يمكنه أبدا أن يصل إلى مستوى الطبيعة، و هو يشبه في ذلك تلك الدودة التي لا يمكنها أن تنافس الفيل في قوته و ضخامته.

* النص “ج”:

- نوع الحجة: الحجة الواقعية التجريبية

- مجالها: الواقع

- وظيفتها: نقد الفكرة القائلة بالأصل الغريزي للقابلية للاجتماعية والتأكيد على أنها نتاج للأوضاع و الظروف الاجتماعية.

* النص “د”:

- نوع الحجة: المثال

- مجالها: الواقع

- وظيفتها: التدعيم؛ تدعيم الفكرة القائلة بأن تنازل الأفراد للسلطة السياسية عن جزء من حقوقهم هو بهدف التمتع بالأجزاء المتبقية منها.

* النص “ه”:

- نوع الحجة: حجة النجاح العملي

- مجالها: الواقع

- وظيفتها: تأكيد فرضية اللاشعور من خلال نجاحها على مستوى الممارسة العملية.

* النص “و”:

- نوع الحجة: الاستعارة

- مجالها: البلاغة

- وظيفتها: التدعيم ، ومعناه أنه مثلما القلم يخط الأفكار على الورقة البيضاء، فكذلك الشأن بالنسبة للعقل الذي هو خلو من أية معارف و أفكار، اللهم إلا تلك التي تأتيه من التجربة.

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