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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
فكرة موت الإله عند نيتشه

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
تاريخ الفلسفة عند هيجل

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
فبراير

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
23

فكرة النفس عند دفيد هيوم

إن تصور دفيد هيوم لفكرة النفس لا يخرج عن المبدأ العام الذي تنطلق منه نزعته التجريبية في تصورها لمصدر وطبيعة المعرفة البشرية. فأصل هذه المعرفة كيفما كان يعود إلى الانطباعات الحسية؛ ولذلك يميز هيوم بين “الانطباعات” التي تقع على الحواس مباشرة، و “الأفكار” التي هي أيضا انطباعات خافتة ومجرد صور ذهنية لانطباعات حسية سابقة ولم تعد ماثلة أمام الحواس.
هكذا يرى هيوم أن الأفكار المتعلقة بالواقع الفعلي لشيء ما لا بد أن ترتبط بانطباعاتنا الحسية، إما بشكل مباشر أو من خلال ارتباطها بفكرة أخرى لها أصل في الخبرة الحسية. ويستثني من ذلك طبعا القضايا التحليلية المنطقية التي هي مجرد تحصيل حاصل.
من هنا فإثبات صدق قضية ما مرتبط بالضرورة بالخبرة الحسية الواقعية؛ فلا يجوز لأحد أن يتحدث عن كائن ما دون أن يستطيع إرجاع مسألة وجوده إلى الخبرة الحسية من بصر أو لمس أو سمع…الخ.
وإذا طبقنا هذا المبدأ العام على مفهوم النفس، فإننا نجد هيوم ينكر وجود النفس كجوهر قائم بذاته، ويرجعها إلى مجموعة من الانطباعات والأفكار التي تتوالى وتتتابع لتمنحنا فكرة وهمية عن شيء اسمه النفس. إن ما هنالك هو أننا ننطبع بإحساسات باطنية كالحب أو الغضب أو الكراهية، أو بإحساسات ظاهرية مثل البرودة والحرارة، وتكون هذه الإحساسات مرتبطة بشكل مباشر أو غير مباشر بأشياء واقعية، لكننا لا نحس “النفس” بشكل مباشر وكأنها شيء موجود وقائم الذات، سواء تعلق الأمر بالإحساس الظاهري أو الباطني.
إن الإنسان دوما في حالة إدراك حسي، سواء كان ظاهريا أو باطنيا، وهذا التتالي هو الذي يعطيه الانطباع بان له نفس. ولذلك يربط هيوم بين الوعي والإدراك الحسي، وير أنه بتوقف الإنسان عن الإدراك، كما هو الشأن أثناء الموت، يتوقف الوعي لديه، ولا يعود إذاك إمكان للحديث عما يسمى بالنفس، لأن هذه الأخيرة لا تعدو أن تكون أفعال للوعي متعددة ومتنوعي وتنتهي مع انتهاء الإدراكات الحسية التي ترتبط بها.
وإذا كان البعض يزعم أن النفس كائن دائم الوجود، فغن هيوم يرد عليهم بأنه لا يوجد انطباع حسي واحد وثابت يدل على وجود النفس، فكل ما هنالك هو أننا أمام مجموعة من الحالات الإدراكية التي لا تتم في وقت واحد، كالفرح والحزن والألم واللذة وكل الإحساسات الأخرى، ولذلك لا يمكن لفكرة النفس أن تكون نتاجا لحالة إدراكية من هذه االإدراكات المتنوعة، وهذا ما يجعل فكرة النفس مجرد فكرة وهمية.
يقول هيوم: « عندما أتوغل في أعماق ما أسميه نفسي (أنا) أصطدم دائما بهذا الإدراك الجزئي أو ذاك، بالحرارة أو بالبرود، بالنور أو الظلام، بالحب أو الكراهية، بالألم أو اللذة. فلا يمكنني أن أعقل نفسي في أية لحظة من دون عملية إدراكية ما، ولا يمكنني أن ألاحظ إلا الإدراك. فعندما تزول إدراكاتي الحسية لمدة من الزمان، مثلما يكون ذلك في النوم الهادئ (العميق) فإن شعوري بنفسي يزول خلال النوم، ويمكن القول حقا بأني لست موجودا. فلو كانت جميع إدراكاتي قد زالت بالموت، وكنت لا أستطيع أن أفكر، ولا أن أحس، ولا أن أرى، ولا أن أحب، ولا أن أكره بعد تحلل جسمي، فإنني أكون قد غبت تماما، وأني لا أتصور شيئا أكثر من هذا ليجعل مني عدما بحتا»
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دافيد هيوم، منقول من "المختار من النصوص" تعريب محمود يعقوبي، مكتبة الشركة الجزائرية، 1972، ص65-66]
هكذا ينكر هيوم أن يكون في جوف الإنسان كائن واحد متصل اسمه “نفس”. فالإنسان ليس إلا « حزمة أو مجموعة من الإدراكات يعقب بعضها في سرعة هائلة لا يتصورها خيال، وهي إدراكات لا تنفك في حركة وتدفق لا ينقطعان». وهذا التدفق غير المنقطع للإدراكات الحسية هو الذي يعطينا وهما بأن لنا نفس.

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