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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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لقد انتهيت من قراءة كتاب صغير الحجم لأرسطو تحت عنوان “دعوة للفلسفة”، وهو كتاب مفقود، قدمه للعربية مع تعليقات وشروح الدكتور عبد الغفار مكاوي، وكعادتي في قراءة الكتب فإنني أسطر بقلم الرصاص على بعض الجمل والفقرات الدالة في الكتاب، على أن أعود بعد ذلك إليها من أجل إنجاز تلخيص للكتاب وأدونه في مسوداتي.

ويسرني أن أشارك معي القراء  الأعزاء في الاطلاع على الأفكار التي تضمنتها بعض هذه العبارات التي سطرت عليها في الكتاب، خصوصا وأن الأمر يتعلق بأفكار كتبها أرسطو أيام الشباب، وهو يوجه فيها دعوة إلى التفلسف ويدافع بحماس الشباب عن الفلسفة وممارسة التفكير الفلسفي، ويبرهن على أهميتهما بالنسبة للإنسان والمجتمع.

 

 

 

 

أقوال من كتاب ” دعوة للفلسفة” لأرسطو:   ” دعوة للفلسفة “.

 

 

* ” يجب علينا أن نصبح فلاسفة إذا أردنا أن نصرف شؤون الدولة بصورة صحيحة، ونشكل حياتنا

      الخاصة بطريقة نافعة “.       ( ص 34 )

 

* ” ليست الطبيعة هي التي تحاكي الصنعة (البشرية) ، بل هذه هي التي تحاكي الطبيعة، كما أن المقدرة البشرية (على الصنعة) قد وجدت لمساندة الطبيعة وإكمال ما تركته ناقصا “. ( ص36)

 

* ” إن ملكة العقل بحسب طبيعتها هي هدفنا، وإن استخدامها هو الغاية الأخيرة التي من أجلها نشأنا.

      وإذا صح القول بأننا قد وجدنا وفقا للطبيعة، فقد اتضح أننا نعيش أيضا لكي نفكر في شيء ولكي

      نتعلم “.  ( ص 38 )

 

* ” إن كل إنسان قد أوجده الإله لكي يعرف وينظر ويتأمل “.  ( ص 39 )

 

* ” نحن نعلم أن النفس تكون في جزء منها عاقلة، وفي جزء آخر غير عاقلة، وأن الجزء غير العاقل

      منها أقل قيمة (من العاقل) “.  ( ص40 )

 

* ” إن الإنسان إذا حرم الإدراك الحسي والعقل صار شبيها بالنبات، وإذا حرم العقل وحده تحول إلى

      حيوان، أما إذا تحرر من غير المعقول وتمسك بالعقل فقد صار شبيها بالإله “. ( ص 42 )

 

* ” إن الإنسان الذي وهب ملكة العقل سيختار الفلسفة، لأن التفلسف هو مهمة هذه الملكة ” .

      ( صص46-47 )

 

* ” إن التأمل والمعرفة جديران بأن يسعى إليهما الإنسان، إذ بغيرهما يستحيل على المرء أن يحيى

      الحياة التي تليق بإنسانيته “. ( ص 47 )

 

* ” سواء أكانت الحياة السعيدة تكمن في البهجة والهناء أم في الفضيلة أم في التعقل فلا بد للإنسان

      في كل هذه الأحوال من أن يتفلسف، لأننا لا نتوصل إلى الرأي الواضح في كل هذه الأمور إلا عن

      طريق التفلسف “.  ( ص 47 )

 

* ” لا يصح أن نبتئس إذا بدا لنا أن التفلسف غير نافع أو مفيد، لأننا لا نؤكد أنه مفيد وإنما نؤكد أنه

      خير، وأن ليس على الإنسان أن يختاره من أجل شيء آخر، بل عليه أن يختاره لذاته “.(ص49)

 

* “… هكذا نكون قد أثبتنا أن في الإمكان أن يهب الإنسان حياته للفلسفة وأنها أعظم الخيرات جميعا،

      وأن من السهل تحصيلها واكتسابها ولهذه الأسباب تستحق الإقبال عليها بهمة وحماس “.

                                                                                                       ( ص 55 )

 

* ” إن أسمى غاية للعلم لهي المعرفة الفلسفية “. ( ص 57 )

 

* ” ليس هناك ما هو أسمى من الحياة الفلسفية… هكذا تكون المعرفة والنظر الفلسفي هما المهمتان

      الحقيقيتان للنفس “.  ( ص 59 )

 

* ” إن الذي يفكر تفكيرا صحيحا يحيا أقيم حياة، وإن الذي يبذل أقصى جهده من أجل الحقيقة هو الذي

      يتفرد من دون الناس بأفضل حياة ممكنة “. ( ص 64 )

 

* ” من الثابت إذن أن الفرح الذي يصدر عن التفكير الفلسفي هو وحده – أو هو على وجه التفضيل –

       الفرح بالحياة “. ( ص 66 )

 

* ” إذا كانت السعادة هي القدرة على التفكير فمن الواضح أن الحياة السعيدة ستكون من نصيب

       الفلاسفة وحدهم ” . ( ص 67 )

 

* ” ليس عند البشر ما هو إلهي أو مبارك سوى هذا الشيء الواحد الذي يستحق وحده أن يبذلوا

      الجهد (من أجله)، واقصد به ما يوجد فينا من العقل وملكة التفكير. ويبدو أنه وحده الخالد، وهو

      وحده الإلهي من كل ما ينطوي عليه كياننا “.  ( ص 72 )

 

* ” إن الشعراء يقولون بحق: ‘إن العقل هو الإله (الكامن) فينا، كما يقولون إن حياة الإنسان (الغائية)

      تنطوي على جزء من الإله’. هكذا ينبغي على الإنسان إما أن يتفلسف أو يودع الحياة ويمضي من

      هنا، إذ يبدو أن كل ما عدا ذلك إنما هو ثرثرة حمقاء ولغو فارغ “.  ( صص 72-73 )  

 

أتمنى أن تفتح هذه الأقوال الأرسطية، التي لا تخلو من حماس في الدفاع عن الفلسفة والدعوة إلى التفلسف، شهيتكم للبحث عن الكتاب وقراءته.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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