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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
الامتحان الوطني لمسالك الشعب العلمية..؛ الدورة الاستدراكية 2008

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
الامتحان الوطني لمسلك العلوم الإنسانية؛ الدورة العادية 2012

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
13

الامتحان الوطني الموحد للبكالوريا

الدورة العادية 2012

مسالك الشعب العلمية والتقنية والأصيلة


أكتب في أحد المواضيع الثلاثة الآتية:

الموضوع الأول:

لم الدولة؟

الموضوع الثاني:

« يمكن اختبار علمية نظرية ما بواسطة التجربة، غير أن طريق التجربة لا يقودنا إلى إبداع النظرية.»
أوضح (ي) مضمون القولة وبين (ي) أبعادها.

الموضوع الثالث:

« يجب علينا أن نحدد ما هي العلاقة التي تربط بين أحداث معينة على نحو يجعل منها الحياة الذهنية لشخص ما، من الواضح أن الذاكرة من أهمها جميعا، فالأشياء التي أتذكرها هي تلك التي حدثت لي أنا. وإذا كان بإمكاني أن أتذكر مناسبة ما وأتذكر ضمن هذه المناسبة شيئا آخر فإن هذا الشيء الآخر قد حدث لي أيضا. غير أنه يمكن الاعتراض على هذا القول بأن شخصين قد يتذكران نفس الحدث، لكن مثل هذا الاعتراض ينطوي على خطأ، لا يوجد شخصان أبدا يريان نفس الشيء بسبب اختلاف موقعيهما، كما لا يمكن أن يكون لهما نفس إحساسات السمع والشم واللمس أو الذوق. إن تجربتي يمكن أن تتشابه بشكل كبير مع تجربة شخص آخر لكنها تختلف عنها دوما بهذا القدر او ذاك. فتجربة كل شخص هي تجربة خاصة به لوحده. »

حلل (ي) النص وناقشه (يه)

تعليق واحد على “الامتحان الوطني لمسالك الشعب العلمية..، الدورة العادية 2012”

  1. محمد الشبة يعلق:

    أهلا بالجميع

    - يبدو أن إشكال الموضوع الأول يتعلق بالغاية من وجود الدولة؛ فالسؤال يدعونا إلى البحث عن الأسباب التي جعلت الناس ينشئون الدولة.. وهنا يمكن التساؤل: لماذا أوجد الناس الدولة؟ ما الغاية من وجودها؟ وهل لها غاية باطنية في ذاتها أم أنها مجرد وسيلة لتحقيق غايات الأفراد؟
    ويمكن معالجة الإشكال، بعد تحليل عناصر السؤال، بتقديم الموقف التعاقدي الذي يتبناه اسبينوزا ولوك وروسو.. والذي يعتبر الدولة مجرد أداة او وسيلة ابتكرها الأفراد للخروج من حالة الطبيعة والفوضى والظلم.. وتحقيق الأمن والاستقرار والحرية وكل الحقوق المشروعة للأفراد..
    وبعد ذلك يمكن معارضته بالموقف الكلياني الذي يمنح للدولة الأسبقية على الأفراد ويعتبرها غاية في ذاتها وخصوصا موقف هيجل…
    كما يمكن عرض مواقف تتقاطع مع أطروحة هيجل كموقف ماركس (طابع الهيمنة الذي تتميز به الدولة..) أو موقف أفلاطون (الطابع النسقي للدولة الذي يجعل الأفراد يقومون بوظائف محددة داخلها..) ….

    - اما الموضوع الثاني (القولة)، فيعالج إشكال معايير النظرية العلمية ودور كل من العقل والتجربة في بناء النظرية العلمية… وهنا، وبعد عملية التحليل دائما، سيكون على المترشح ان يجيش ذاكرته لاستحضار فريق الفلاسفة التجريبيين كرايشنباخ ودوهايم الذين يجعلون التجربة هي منطلق بناء النظرية ومعيار علميتها… ثم يعارضهم بالعقلانيين كإنشتين الذي يرى ان العقل الرياضي الخالص قادر على إبداع النظرية … ثم يقدم فلاسفة لهم أطروحات تركيبية كباشلار (النظرية هي نتاج حوار متبادل بين العقل والتجربة) أو متمايزة ككارل بوبر ( معيار القابلية للتكذيب)…

    - أما الموضوع الثالث (النص)، فيبدو انه يعالج إشكال هوية الشخص ودور الذاكرة في منح الشخص إحساسا بوحدة هويته ووعيه بذاته.. وكيف أن لكل فرد ذاكرته الخاصة وإدراكه الخاص للاحداث يختلف عن كل شخص آخر..
    يمكن معالجة الموضوع، بعد تحليل النص، بالانفتاح على مواقف فلسفية تحدد هوية الشخص في عناصر أخرى غير الذاكرة، كالإرادة (شوبنهاور) ووحدة الطبع والمزاج (لاشوليي).. او الانفتاح على مواقف تقول بتعدد الهوية واختلافها سواء داخل نفس الشخص أو بالانتقال من شخص لآخر…

    وعلى العموم يبدو ان الاختبار في المتناول، غير أن التعامل مع النص يبدو انه محفوف ببعض المخاطر والمنزلقات أكثر من السؤال والقولة…

    مع متمنياتنا بالتوفيق للجميع

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