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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
أقدم لك عزيزي التلميذ: الوعي الإيديولوجي والوهم

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
أقدم لك عزيزي التلميذ: اللغة خاصية إنسانية ؟؟

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
أكتوبر

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
31

الإنسان كائن راغب


يمكن القول مع كثير من الفلاسفة بأن الإنسان حيوان راغب. فقد اعتبر العديد منهم بأن الرغبة متجذرة في الطبيعة الإنسانية، وأنه لا يمكن للإنسان أن يعيش بدون رغبات. وتتعدد رغبات الإنسان؛ فمنها ما يرتبط بالجانب الحسي الغريزي، ومنها ما يرتبط بالجانب الوجداني العاطفي، كما أن هناك رغبات تتعلق بالجانب الفكري والعقلي.

إن للإنسان حاجات بيولوجية غريزية مثله مثل الحيوانات الأخرى، لكنه يتميز عنها بالرغبة لأنه يسعى إلى تحقيق حاجاته بأشكال وفي أوقات مختلفة، وبحسب ما يريد.

لقد تساءل أفلاطون منذ القديم عن طبيعة الرغبة وأنواعها، وكيفية التحكم فيها.هكذا فقد بين الفيلسوف اليوناني أن الرغبة فطرية في الإنسان، وقد قسمها إلى رغبات مشروعة وغير مشروعة. وبين أن الرغبات غير المشروعة هي تلك التي تظهر في الأحلام أثناء النوم لتعبر عن الجزء الحيواني في الإنسان. لذلك دعا أفلاطون إلى ضرورة تدخل العقل من أجل استئصالها أو على الأقل تنظيمها والتخفيف منها.

من هنا ذهب أفلاطون إلى القول بأن العقل يعمل بقوانينه، على قمع الرغبة وتنظيمها، حيث يعمل على تحقيق الرغبات الفاضلة، ويعمل بالمقابل على استئصال أو التخفيف أو إضعاف تلك الرغبات التي تتعارض مع المبادئ العقلية والأخلاقية. وإذا كانت الرغبة فطرية في الإنسان، ففي أعماق كل فرد - حتى عند العقلاء من الناس - توجد تلك الرغبات التي سماها أفلاطون بالفظيعة والهمجية التي يمكن التحكم فيها وتوجيهها بواسطة العقل. ونحن نجد أن الرغبات الهمجية تبحث لنفسها عن منفذ لإشباع شهواتها ، وهي تجده في الأحلام هذا المجال الواسع لكي تتحقق بعيدا عن رقابة العقل.

ولذلك يمكن التمييز مع أفلاطون بين نوعين رئيسيين من الرغبات؛ رغبات عاقلة: تتوافق مع قوانين العقل ومبادئ الأخلاق، ورغبات حيوانية وهمجية: تتعارض مع العقل، وتسعى فقط لإشباع شهواتها وغرائزها الصادرة عن الجزء الحيواني من النفس.

وقد اعتبر اسبينوزا فيما بعد أن الإنسان ينتج الأفكار من أجل أن يستمر في الوجود، وهذا الجهد الذي يبذله مرتبط بماهيته وطبيعته الإنسانية. لذلك اعتبر اسبينوزا أن الرغبة هي شهوة مصحوبة بالوعي، مما يجعلها خاصية إنسانية، ويكون الإنسان بذلك كائنا راغبا بامتياز.

ولذلك يمكن القول مع اسبينوزا بأن الإنسان حيوان راغب، وأن الرغبة تمثل ماهيته و طبيعته الأصلية. هكذا يربط اسبينوزا بين الرغبة و الشهوة؛ فيعتبر أن لا اختلاف بينهما سوى أن الرغبة هي شهوة مصحوبة بالوعي والإرادة. وإذا كان الإنسان يعي رغباته فهو مع ذلك يجهل أسبابها الخفية.

وقد انطلق اسبينوزا من فكرة عامة مفادها أن عقل الإنسان ينتج أفكارا لكي يستمر في الوجود، ثم انتقل إلى فكرة أخرى تقول بأن هذا الجهد الذي يبذله العقل من أجل البقاء هو جزء من ماهية الإنسان وطبيعته. وفيما بعد اعتبر أن ماهية ليست سوى شهواته ورغباته، لينتهي إلى فكرة خاصة هي أن الرغبة شهوة مصحوبة بالوعي.

وإذا كانت الرغبة تمثل ماهية للإنسان، فإن الإرادة و الوعي يعتبران شرطين ضروريين لأية رغبة إنسانية.

وبعد أن عرف اسبينوزا الرغبة بأنها شهوة مصحوبة بالوعي، و أنها تمثل ماهية الإنسان، عمل على تبيان

الفرق بين الشهوة و الرغبة، لكي يوضح أن الرغبة هي امتداد للشهوة و أنها ترجمة واعية لها على مستوى الواقع. كما أنهما يمثلان ذلك المجهود الذي يبذله الإنسان من أجل الحفاظ على ذاته واستمرار وجوده .

كما خلص إلى القول بأن الرغبة شهوة مصحوبة بالوعي والإرادة، وأن رغبات الإنسان متعددة إلى الحد الذي يجعله لا يعرفها ولا يعرف الأسباب الكامنة وراءها.

وقد استنتج اسبينوزا فكرة أساسية مفادها أن الرغبة هي أساس كل الأفكار والإرادات والمعتقدات والسلوكات الأخلاقية. وهو ما جعله يفند الأطروحة التي تؤسس أفعال الإنسان وأفكاره على أساس أخلاقي وثقافي، ويقول خلافا لذلك بأنها تتأسس على طبيعته المتمثلة في شهواته ورغباته.

وإذا كانت للإنسان طبيعة مزدوجة؛ بيولوجية وواعية، فإن له حاجات ترتبط بدوافعه الغريزية كما أن له رغبات ترتبط بعقله ووعيه. من هنا يمكن التساؤل عن العلاقة الممكنة بين الرغبة والحاجة.

أضف تعليق.

يجب أن تكون مسجل لإضافة تعليق.