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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
أقدم لك عزيزي التلميذ: الإنسان غير قابل للتعريف !

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
قيمة الشخص عند كانط

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
31

حقيقة أم حقائق ؟


يبين تاريخ الفلسفة أن الفلاسفة اختلفوا في تصورهم للحقيقة، بحسب قناعاتهم ومنطلقاتهم الفكرية وكذلك المذاهب التي ينتمون إليها.

وعلى العموم فمنهم من تحدث عن وجود حقيقة مطلقة مثل أفلاطون مثلا؛ بحيث ذهب إلى أن هناك عالما سماه عالم المثل فيه الحقائق المطلقة والخالدة، والتي يتعين على الفيلسوف إدراكها وبلوغها عن طريق التأمل العقلي الفلسفي. كذلك اعتبر أرسطو أن الحقيقة هي الجوهر، وبالتالي فهي ثابثة؛ إذ أن لكل موجود جوهر أو ماهية هي التي تمثل حيققته المطلقة التي تميزه عن باقي الأشياء.
وفي مجال الأخلاق، نجد الفيلسوف كانط مثلا يتحدث عن حقائق أخلاقية مطلقة وواحدة وكونية، هي عبارة عن واجبات مطلقة يشرعها العقل الأخلاقي العملي.
كما يتحدث ديكارت مثلا عن أفكار ومبادئ فطرية وضعها الله في عقولنا، وهي بمثابة حقائق أولية ومطلقة لا يمكن الشك فيها.
غير أنه مع ذلك يوجد فلاسفة آخرون يقولون باختلاف الحقائق وتعددها سواء في المجال الأخلاقي أو في المجال العلمي أو غير ذلك.

ومن أهم التيارات أو المذاهب الفلسفية التي تقول بنسبية الحقيقة وتعددها، نجد النزعة السوفسطائية في الفكر اليوناني حيث اعتبر زعيمها بروتاغوراس أن الإنسان مقياس كل شيء، وأن لكل إنسان أو مجتمع حقيقته الخاصة به. كما نجد أيضا فلسفات معاصرة تقول بنسبية الحقيقة وتعددها، مثل النيتشوية والوضعية والماركسية والوجودية والبرجماتية وغير ذلك.
فنيتشه مثلا، يعتبر أن الحقائق مثل صيد السمك؛ إذ يتعين أن نصطاد في كل يوم سمكا طريا، وهذا معناه أنه يجب أن نبتكر في كل لحظة الحقائق والأفكار التي تتناسب مع إرادة الحياة التي تحركنا.
كما يذهب وليام جيمس، كممثل للنزعة البرغماتية، إلى اعتبار الأفكار كأدوات أو وسائل للعمل، ولذلك فنحن نستخدم الأفكار كوسائل أو أدوات لتحقيق منافع أو إشباع رغبات في الحياة، وإذا لم تعد تلك الأفكار صالحة فبإمكاننا طرحها جانبا والتخلي عنها. وهذا يعني القول بنسبية الحقيقة وتعددها.
ويمكن أن نشير أيضا إلى الحقيقة في مجال العلوم الدقيقة؛ حيث يعتبر الفيلسوف باشلار أن تاريخ العلوم هو تاريخ أخطاء، وأن الحقيقة العلمية هي خطأ تم تصحيحه. وهذا يعني أن الحقيقة العلمية هي حقيقة نسبية إذ بالإمكان تعديلها أو التخلي عنها…
وفي المجال السياسي والحقوقي، نجد بعض الفلاسفة يتفقون على وجود حقوق مشروعة يجب أن يتمتع بها الأشخاص كحق الحياة أو الحرية أو السلم أو الملكية، إلا أنه بالرغم من ذلك يوجد اختلاف كبير بينهم حول كيفية تجسيدها على مستوى النظام السياسي القائم. كما نجد أنصار النزعة الوضعية القانونية يقولون بنسبية الحقوق واختلافها من مجتمع لآخر.

هكذا يبدو أن هدف الفلسفة منذ البداية هو بلوغ الحقيقة، إلا أن أمر بلوغها ليس سهلا والطريق إليها طويلا، والاتفاق حولها ليس متاحا.
ولذلك قال الفيلسوف الألماني المعاصر كارل ياسبرز:
« إن جوهر الفلسفة هو في البحث عن الحقيقة، لا في ادعاء امتلاكها … وتاريخ الفلسفة هو تاريخ أسئلة أكثر منه تاريخ أجوبة، وكل جواب يصبح بدوره سؤالا جديدا ».

إن التساؤل الدائم يجعل الفكر حيا والعقل يقظا، ويمنع الفيلسوف من الركون إلى أية أفكار جامدة أو منغلقة، ويجعله متسامحا ويقبل بالحوار مع الآخر من أجل التعاون على إظهار الحقيقة والسعي نحوها.

وقد اعتبر سقراط قديما أن الحقيقة بنت الحوار. كما كان يقول دائما:

” كل ما أعرف هو أنني لا أعرف شيئا !! “

أضف تعليق.

يجب أن تكون مسجل لإضافة تعليق.