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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
المحور الأول من درس الشغل

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
27

 

 

مفهوم الشغل

 

المحور الثاني:    تقسيم الشغل

 

 إشكال المحور:

 

ماهي آثار تقسيم الشغل على وجود العامل؟

وكيف يؤدي تقسيم الشغل إلى الحفاظ على تماسك المجتمع؟

 

 تحليل نص جورج فريدمان :          النظام الآلي  

 

1- إشكال النص:

 

ما هي آثار تقسيم الشغل على نفسية العامل؟

 

2- أطروحة النص:

 

لقد أدى تقسيم الشغل إلى آثار سلبية على العامل، حيث لم يعد يتحكم في عمله عن طريق التفكير فيه و التخطيط له،  بل حدث انشطار بين العمل و التفكير لدى العامل؛ فأصبح يقوم بعمل آلي  خال من كل حافز أو تفكير عقلي حر .

 

3- مفاهيم النص:

 

         * تقسيم الشغل/العامل:  

 

لقد أصبح الشغل مع نظام الآلية أكثر تجزيئا و تخصصا، و أصبحت الآلة تعوظ عمل الإنسان في الكثير من المهام. و هذا ما أدى إلى تقليص مساهمة العامل في الإنتاج و إضعاف ذكائه، ولم يعد يتحكم في مسار الشغل وفي الأهداف المرسومة له.

          * الشغل /تفكير العامل:

  

 لم يعد العامل يوظف تفكيره وذكاءه في التخطيط للإنتاج ورسم أهداف الشغل، بل أصبح تدخله ينحصر في بعض العمليات التي تكمل عمل الآلة. هكذا أصبح العامل مكرها على المشاركة في عمليات فارغة من كل قيمة فكرية. وحدث نوع من الانشطار بين العمل والتفكيرلديه.

 

4- حجاج النص :

 

اعتمد صاحب النص على آليتين حجاجيتين رئيسيتين من أجل إبراز أطروحته:

 

  أ- آلية الوصف:

 

      *المؤشرات اللغوية الدالة عليها :

 

+ إن تقسيم الشغل … يخلق …

+ أصبح … أكثر تجزيئا … أصبحت…

+ … وضع قطعة تحت …

 

  ب- آلية النقد:

 

      *المؤشرات اللغوية الدالة عليها:

 

+ لم يعد العامل يختار و يقرر …

+… و هو مكره على المشاركة في عمليات فارغة …

+ … تبرز لنا قساوة تقسيم الشغل .

 

     *مضمونهما:

 

هكذا  قدم لنا فريد مان و صفا للوضعية التي يعيشها العامل في ظل نظام الآلية و تقسيم الشغل، ليوجه انتقادا واضحا إلى هذا النظام الذي أدى إلى تبليد العامل و تشييئه، و إحداث انشطار و فصل بين إرادته وتفكيره من جهة، و ما يقوم به من عمل داخل المصنع من جهة أخرى .

 

 

 

 

 تحليل نص إميل دور كايم: لماذا يؤدي تقسيم الشغل إلى التماسك الاجتماعي ؟

 

 1-إشكال النص:

 

ما هي آثار تقسيم الشغل على المجتمع ؟

 

2- أطروحة النص :

 

يولد تقسيم الشغل مشاعر الإنتماء إلى الجماعة، كما يؤدي إلى تماسكها و خلق تنافس إيجابي بين أفرادها، مما ينتج عنه تطور في الإنتاج و حيوية و استمرارية في العمل .

 

3- مفاهيم النص :

 

      * الفرد / المجتمع:

 

- لايستطيع الفرد أن يكتفي بذاته، فهو في حاجة إلى المجتمع من أجل تحقيق ما هو ضروري بالنسبة

 إليه.

- الفرد يشتغل من أجل المجتمع.

- الفرد جزء لايتجزء من المجتمع، فهناك روابط أخلاقية و روحية  تدفعه إلى أن يشتغل من أجل الآخرين.

 

   * الشغل / النشاط الوظيفي:

 

يؤدي النشاط الوظيفي إلى تطوير الشغل و خلق تنافس و حيوية و استمرارية داخل المجتمع .

 

4- حجاج النص :

 

 استخدم صاحب النص أسلوبين حجاجين ر ئيسيين من أجل توضيح أطروحته:

 

     أ- أسلوب التحليل:

 

           * المؤشرات اللغوية الدالة عليه:

 

- و بما أن الفرد … فهو …

- كما أنه …

- هكذا [ أسلوب الاستنتاج ] .

* مثل هذه المشاعر ليس من شأنها فحسب أن تولد … و إنما تولد أيضا …

 

         * مضمونه:

 

لايستطيع الفرد أن يحقق اكتفاء ذاتيا و يلبي كل الضروريات التي يحتاج إليها، ولذلك تتولد لديه روح الإنتماء إلى المجتمع، فيسعى إلى تقديم تضحيات و مجهودات من أجل المساهمة في تحقيق النظام داخل المجتمع .

 

   ب- أسلوب الإثبات:

                                                                                                               * المؤشرات اللغوية الدالة عليه: 

 

- لا يتطور… إلا… 

- إن الأسباب التي… هي نفس الأسباب التي…

- حينما يزداد… سينعكس…

- وبالإضافة إلى ذلك، فإن تقسيم الشغل…

 

        * مضمونه:

 

يؤدي النشاط الوظيفي والمتخصص في الشغل إلى خلق المنافسة والحيوية وتطوير الإنتاجية.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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