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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
مجزوءة الطبيعة والثقافة: المحور الأول 1

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
المحور الثاني: الإنسان كائن ثقافي

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
03

 

المحور الأول من مجزوءة الطبيعة والثقافة

 * مشكلة التمييز بين الطبيعة والثقافة:

                     

        

تحليل نص كلود ليفي ستراوس:

 

-         مؤلف النص:

 

- هو مفكر أنثروبولوجي فرنسي معاصر، قام بتحليل الثقافات القديمة غير الغربية. درس الأساطير و النظم الثقافية و قارن فيما بينها. من أهم مؤلفاته : ” الأنثروبولوجيا البنيوية” و”البنى الأولية للقرابة”.

 

I-                 فهم النص :

 

1-     تتمحور الفكرة الرئيسية للنص حول صعوبة التمييز بين الطبيعة و الثقافة، ذلك أن الإنتقال من الطبيعة إلى الثقافة ظل لغزا صعب الحل، و كل الطرق قد خيبت الآمال بشكل كبير في الحسم فيه.

2-     لقد جعل كلود ليفي ستراوس معيار القاعدة و ما هو عام أساسين اعتمد عليهما للتمييز بين الطبيعة و الثقافة، حيث اعتبر أنه حين تظهر القاعدة فنحن على يقين بأننا على صعيد نظام الثقافة، كما أنه من السهل معرفة أن الكوني أو العام هو معيار الطبيعة.

3-     يمكن القول بأن القاعدة تتميز في النص بثلاث خصائص:

- الانفلات مما هو غريزي إذ تعتبر ذات صبغة أخلاقية.

- النسبية: ذلك أنها قد توجد في هذا المجتمع و تغيب في مجتمعات أخرى.

- الخصوصية: إنها ترتبط بالعادات و التقاليد، و القوانين و المؤسسات الخاصة بمجتمع معين.

4-     ما يمكن فهمه من هذه الجملة، هو صعوبة الحسم في تفسير خوف الطفل إما طبيعيا أو ثقافيا، ذلك أن هناك تدخل بينهما في تفسير مثل هذه الأفعال .

 

خلاصة فهم النص :

 

- يطرح مشكل التميز بين الطبيعة و الثقافة عدة صعوبات نظرا للتداخل الموجود بينهما على مستوى السلوك البشري. لكن ستراوس اقترح معيار القاعدة و ما هو عام و كوني من اجل التميز بينهما.

 

II- الإطار المفاهيمي للنص :

 

1-     يقدم النص مفهوم الطبيعة و الثقافة باعتبارهما متداخلين، لأننا نجدهما يحضران معا في السلوك البشري.فالخوف  و التنفس و الأكل و الشرب و النوم هي كلها خصائص طبيعة، لكن طرق إنجازها تختلف حسب ثقافة كل شخص.

     2-

 

 

التمفصل

غياب التمفصل

- الأكل – الخوف – الفن- العنف - النوم

- الصراخ – البكاء – التوالد – الهروب -


 3-لقد اعتمد ستراوس مفهومي القاعدة و ما هو عام للتميز بين الطبيعة و الثقافة، لأن مفهوم القاعدة يشير إلى مجموع القوانين أو المبادئ السياسية و الأخلاقية التي يشرعها الإنسان، و التي تختلف من مجتمع لآخر، و بذلك فهي تمثل ما هو ثقافي. أما مفهوم ما هو عام فإنه يشير إلى مجموع الخصائص الفطرية الطبيعية المشتركة بين جميع الناس.  

 

II-              الإطار الحجاجي:

 

اعتمد صاحب النص في توضيح أفكاره على أساليب حجاجية يمكن تقديمها كما يلي :

-         أسلوب المثال : و يتجلى في : رفة العين – يد الفارس الممسكة بالعنان , موقف الأم تجاه طفلها، الانفعالات المعقدة لمشاهد عرض عسكري.

-         أسلوب الحجة بالسلطة : و يتجلى في الاستشهاد بما قاله الفيلسوف الانجليزي جون لوك.

 

خلاصة عامة للمحور:

   

  يثير هذا المحور إشكالية رئيسية تتعلق بمعيار التمييز بين ما هو طبيعي و ما هو ثقافي. فكيف يمكن التمييز بينهما ؟

    إن مفهوم الطبيعة يشير أساسا إلى هو غريزي و بيولوجي و مشترك بين الإنسان و الحيوان، في حين يدل مفهوم الثقافة على ما هو مكتسب من معارف و معتقدات و أنماط عيش مختلفة. غير أن السلوك الإنساني يتدخل فيه ما هو طبيعي و فطري مع ما هو ثقافي و مكتسب، و هو الأمر الذي يستلزم ضرورة وضع معيار للتمييز بينهما. و في هذا الإطار اقترح كلود ليفي ستراوس معيار القاعدة و ما هو عام من أجل التميز بين ما هو طبيعي و ما هو ثقافي؛ هكذا فحضور القاعدة يجعلنا نكون أمام ماهو ثقافي، أما ما هو عام فيشير إلى الضروري و الكوني.

تعليق واحد على “مجزوءة الطبيعة والثقافة: المحور الأول 2”

  1. lamin يعلق:

    السلام عليكم شكر لك علي هذه الخلاصة العامة للمحور, لكن كيف نحدد الطبيعة الانسانية هل بالثقافة أم الطبيعة ؟ وأسف ان كنت قد أزعجتك .
    تحياتي

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