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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55

Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
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Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 41

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 50

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 52

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 54

Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/0/h/chebba.hijaj.net/www/wp-includes/functions.php on line 55
08

تمرين حجاجي:

البحث عن التناقض الداخلي للحجة

يمكن هذا النوع من التمارين من التدرب على كيفية دحض حجة ما انطلاقا من الكشف عن التناقضات التي تسكنها من الداخل. وهذا من شأنه أن يجعلنا ندرك أن الحجج الموظفة من قبل الفلاسفة هي ذات طابع احتمالي وليس قطعيا، وهو الأمر الذي يسمح لنا بانتقادها وتبيان الخلل الذي قد يعتريها. وهذا هو جوهر التفكير الفلسفي؛ فهو تفكير يقوم على الحوار وتبادل الحجج ولا يركن إلى الجاهز والبديهي أبدا، كما لا تسلم الأفكار فيه من التعرض لمشرحة النقد والمساءلة العقلية.

· التمرين:

وضح من خلال الحجج التالية أين يبدو عدم التماسك المنطقي:

أ ـ إن الاشتغال بالفلسفة معناه التوقف عن إصدار الأحكام ما دام العقل عاجزا عن إدراك الحقيقة.

ب ـ يجب منع ركوب السيارات لأن ركوبها قد أدى إلى تفاقم حوادث السير.

ج ـ النار لم تحرق إبراهيم عليه السلام، إذن فالنار ليست هي سبب الإحراق.

د ـ لا يجب منع الإنسان من فعل أي شيء لأن ذلك يتعارض مع الحرية كحق طبيعي ومقدس للكائن البشري.

· أجوبة مقترحة:

البحث عن التناقض الداخلي للحجة.

أ ـ إن التوقف عن إصدار الأحكام يسقط العقل في نزعة شكية خالصة و يجعله يتوقف نهائيا عن البحث، و هذا أمر مخالف لمنطق الفلسفة باعتبارها محبة للمعرفة وسعي نحوها.

ب ـ إن تفاقم حوادث السير هو نتيجة أسباب متعددة كالسكر و مخالفة قوانين السير … الخ ، لذلك لا يمكن أن نستنتج منه منعا لركوب السيارات.

ج ـ إن عدم إحراق النار لإبراهيم عليه السلام هو حالة خاصة و مرتبطة بالمعجزة الإلهية، أما في الأحوال العامة فالنار تحرق كل الأشياء القابلة للاحتراق بطبيعتها.

فلا يمكن استنتاج قاعدة عامة و كلية من خاصة و جزئية.

د ـ حرية الإنسان لا تعني فعل كل شيء. ماذا؟ حتى و إن كانت تتعارض مع حرية الآخرين؟ إن الحرية هي الخضوع لمبادئ العقل و الواجب الأخلاقي الذي يمنع أفعالا و يسمح بأخرى.

دمتم أصدقاء للتفلسف

5 تعليقات على “من أجل التمرن على البحث عن التناقض الداخلي للحجة”

  1. moujahid يعلق:

    السلام عليكم.وشكرا جزيلا لكم على هذه المدونة الهامة والمفيدة للتلاميذ والأساتذة…زشكرا جزيلا على اهتمامك بأجرأة تدريس الفلسفة..واقتراحك لتمارين يمكن ان تساعدنا وتساعد تلامذنا في ممارسة التفلسف..فالفلسفة ممارسة مستمرة وليست معرفة جاهزة…والفكر الفلسفي يبنى ولا يعطى..

  2. محمد الشبة يعلق:

    مرحبا مجاهد وشكرا على التعليق.

    بالفعل فالدرس الفلسفي هو تمرن دائم على إعمال العقل. ولذلك فهو يتطلب من المدرس ابتكار مجموعة من التمارين والوضعيات لجعل التلميذ يكتسب آليات التفكيرالفلسفي وأدواته العقلية. ولعلك تدرك ان تعلم التفكير هو أفضل بكثير من تعلم الأفكار، ما دام أنني إذا تعلمت طرق التفكير ومناهجه يمكن في هذه الحالة أن أستخدمها لصالحي في إنجاز أفكار جديدة تخصني. وهذا يتناسب مع التفكير الفلسفي كفكر للإبداع الذاتي الحر والمتجدد.

    تقبل خالص مودتي.

    ودمت محبا للحكمة وعاشقا للحقيقة

  3. farah يعلق:

    المرجو توضيح الفكرة اكثر و شكرا

  4. said_said يعلق:

    السلام أعليكم ورحمة الله تعالى وبركاتة أولا أشكرك جزيل الشكر يا أستاي فأنت أستادي أستاذي أنا أيضا ….. أريد إرشادات في كتابة موضوع فلسفي .. و الله يجازيك خيرا ..أنا تلميذ 2 باك وأواجه هذا المشكل أتمنى إجابة في الحين لأنني مضطر وشكرا

  5. محمد الشبة يعلق:

    أهلا بك أخي سعيد

    يمكنك الرجوع إلى الساحة الخاصة بمنهجية الكتابة الإنشائية الفلسفية وستجد ما تبحث عنه.
    فهناك وضعت منهجيات الصيغ الثلاث: النص والقولة والسؤال، فضلا عن مقالات تعالج مشكل المنهج في الكتابة الفلسفية.

    مرحبا باستفساراتك.

    وأتمنى لك كل التوفيق والنجاح.

أضف تعليق.

يجب أن تكون مسجل لإضافة تعليق.